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  • Q1: What is Selenium?
    A: Selenium is an open-source automation testing framework used for web application testing. It provides a way to interact with web browsers and automate user actions like clicking buttons, entering text, etc.
  • Q2: What are the different components of Selenium?
    A: The main components of Selenium are Selenium WebDriver, Selenium IDE, Selenium Grid, and Selenium RC (now deprecated).
  • Q3: What is WebDriver in Selenium?
    A: WebDriver is the primary component of Selenium. It provides a programming interface to drive the browser and interact with web elements.
  • Q4: What programming languages are supported by Selenium WebDriver?
    A: Selenium WebDriver supports multiple programming languages, including Java, C#, Python, Ruby, and JavaScript.
  • Q5: How can you handle AJAX calls in Selenium WebDriver?
    A: You can use the WebDriverWait class in Selenium WebDriver to wait for the AJAX calls to complete before interacting with the web elements.
  • Q6: What is the difference between findElement() and findElements() methods in Selenium WebDriver?
    A: The findElement() method returns the first matching web element on the page, while the findElements() method returns a list of all matching web elements.
  • Q7: How can you handle frames in Selenium WebDriver?
    A: You can switch to a frame using the switchTo().frame() method and switch back to the default content using switchTo().defaultContent().
  • Q8: How can you handle alerts in Selenium WebDriver?
    A: You can handle alerts using the Alert interface in Selenium WebDriver. You can accept, dismiss, or get the text from an alert.
  • Q9: What is a Page Object Model (POM) in Selenium?
    A: Page Object Model (POM) is a design pattern that promotes creating an object repository for web elements on a page. It separates the test logic from the page structure, making tests more readable and maintainable.
  • Q10: How can you handle dynamic web elements in Selenium?
    A: You can handle dynamic web elements by using techniques like XPath, CSS selectors, or dynamic waiting strategies.
  • Q11: What is TestNG? How is it useful in Selenium?
    A: TestNG is a testing framework for Java that provides features like parallel test execution, test configuration management, test grouping, and data parameterization. It is widely used with Selenium to write and execute test scripts.
  • Q12: How do you handle browser cookies in Selenium WebDriver?
    A: You can handle browser cookies using the manage().getCookies(), manage().addCookie(), and manage().deleteCookie() methods in Selenium WebDriver.
  • Q13: What is a Data-Driven framework in Selenium?
    A: A Data-Driven framework allows you to separate test data from test logic. It enables you to run the same test script with different sets of data, improving test coverage.
  • Q14: How can you capture screenshots in Selenium WebDriver?
    A: You can capture screenshots using the TakesScreenshot interface in Selenium WebDriver. It provides a method called getScreenshotAs() to capture screenshots.
  • Q15: What is the difference between assert and verify commands in Selenium?
    A: The assert command in Selenium checks if a condition is true and stops the execution if it is false. The verify command, on the other hand, checks the condition and continues the execution even if it is false.
  • Q16: What is the difference between XPath and CSS selectors in Selenium?
    A: XPath and CSS selectors are used to locate web elements in Selenium. XPath has more complex syntax but provides a wide range of options to locate elements, while CSS selectors have simpler syntax but are limited in their capabilities.
  • Q17: How can you handle multiple windows in Selenium WebDriver?
    A: You can handle multiple windows by using the window handles provided by the WebDriver. You can switch between windows using the switchTo().window() method.
  • Q18: What are the advantages of using Selenium for automated testing?
    A: Some advantages of using Selenium for automated testing include cross-browser compatibility, support for multiple programming languages, open-source nature, and a large community for support.
  • Q19: How can you handle dropdowns in Selenium WebDriver?
    A: You can handle dropdowns using the Select class in Selenium WebDriver. It provides methods like selectByVisibleText(), selectByValue(), and selectByIndex() to interact with dropdowns.